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Zonisamide

Why is this medication prescribed?
Zonisamide is used in combination with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Zonisamide is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in the brain.
How should this medication be used?
Zonisamide comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day with or without food. To help you remember to take zonisamide, take it at around the same time(s) every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take zonisamide exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Swallow the capsules whole; do not split, chew, or crush them.
Your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of zonisamide and gradually increase your dose, not more often than once every 2 weeks.
Zonisamide may help control your condition but will not cure it. It may take 2 weeks or longer before you feel the full benefit of zonisamide. Continue to take zonisamide even if you feel well. Do not stop taking zonisamide without talking to your doctor, even if you experience side effects such as unusual changes in behavior or mood. If you suddenly stop taking zonisamide, your seizures may become worse. Your doctor will probably decrease your dose gradually.
Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with zonisamide and each time you refill your prescription. Read the information carefully and ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions. You can also visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.
Are there other uses for this medicine?
This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Other names
Zonegran®



What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking zonisamide,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to zonisamide, diuretics ('water pills'), oral medications for diabetes, sulfa drugs, or any other medications.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, and nutritional supplements you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone);antifungals such as itraconazole (Sporanox) and ketoconazole (Nizoral); carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide (Diamox) and methazolamide; clarithromycin (Biaxin, in Prevpac); diltiazem (Cardizem, Dilacor, Tiazac); erythromycin (E.E.S., E-Mycin, Erythrocin); fluvoxamine (Luvox); HIV protease inhibitors such as indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), and ritonavir (Norvir, in Kaletra); medications for irritable bowel disease, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, ulcers, or urinary problems; other medications for seizures including carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Epitol, Tegretol),phenobarbital (Luminal, Solfoton), phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek),and valproic acid (Depakene, Depakote); nefazodone (Serzone); hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, and injections); pioglitazone (Actos, in Actoplus, in Duetact); rifabutin (Mycobutin); rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane); troleandomycin (TAO) (not available in the U.S.); and verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
tell your doctor what herbal products you are taking, especially St. John's wort.
tell your doctor if you are following a ketogenic diet (a high fat, low carbohydrate diet used to control seizures) or if you have or have ever had breathing problems, kidney liver, or lung disease. Also tell your doctor if you have diarrhea now, or if you develop diarrhea at any time during your treatment.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. You should use birth control to prevent pregnancy during your treatment. Talk to your doctor about birth control methods that will work for you. If you become pregnant while taking zonisamide, call your doctor.
if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking zonisamide.
you should know that zonisamide may make you drowsy. Do not drive a car, operate machinery, or perform dangerous tasks until you know how this medication affects you.
you should know that zonisamide can decrease the body's ability to sweat and make it harder for your body to cool down when it gets very hot. This happens most often in warm weather and to children who take zonisamide. (Children should not normally take zonisamide, but in some cases, it may be prescribed by a doctor.) You should avoid exposure to heat and call your doctor right away if you have a fever and/or are not sweating as usual.
you should know that your mental health may change in unexpected ways and you may become suicidal (thinking about harming or killing yourself or planning or trying to do so) while you are taking zonisamide for the treatment of epilepsy, mental illness, or other conditions. A small number of adults and children 5 years of age and older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as zonisamide to treat various conditions during clinical studies became suicidal during their treatment. Some of these people developed suicidal thoughts and behavior as early as 1 week after they started taking the medication. There is a risk that you may experience changes in your mental health if you take an anticonvulsants medication such as zonisamide, but there may also be a risk that you will experience changes in your mental health if your condition is not treated. You and your doctor will decide whether the risks of taking an anticonvulsant medication are greater than the risks of not taking the medication. You, your family, or your caregiver should call your doctor right away if you experience any of the following symptoms: panic attacks; agitation or restlessness; new or worsening irritability, anxiety, or depression; acting on dangerous impulses; difficulty falling or staying asleep; aggressive, angry, or violent behavior; mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood); talking or thinking about wanting to hurt yourself or end your life; withdrawing from friends and family; preoccupation with death and dying; giving away prized possessions; or any other unusual changes in behavior or mood. Be sure that your family or caregiver knows which symptoms may be serious so they can call the doctor if you are unable to seek treatment on your own.
What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Talk to your doctor about eating grapefruit and drinking grapefruit juice while taking this medicine.
Drink 6-8 glasses of water every day during your treatment with zonisamide.



What side effects can this medication cause?
Zonisamide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
nausea
vomiting
weight loss
changes in taste
diarrhea
constipation
heartburn
dry mouth
headache
dizziness
confusion
irritability
difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
difficulty with memory
pain, burning, numbness, or tingling in the hands or feet
uncontrollable eye movements
double vision
Some side effects can be serious. The following symptoms are uncommon, but if you experience any of them, call your doctor immediately:
rash
blistering or peeling of skin
worsening or longer-lasting seizures
sudden back pain
stomach pain
pain when urinating
bloody or dark urine
fever, sore throat, chills, cough, and other signs of infection
sores in mouth
easy bruising
difficulty thinking of words or trouble speaking
difficulty thinking or concentrating
lack of coordination
difficulty walking
severe weakness
severe muscle pain
extreme tiredness
loss of appetite
fast, shallow breathing
irregular heartbeat
loss of consciousness
Zonisamide may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.
Zonisamide may cause metabolic acidosis (abnormally low levels of a certain natural substance in the blood). Metabolic acidosis that is left untreated for a long time may increase the risk that other medical problems, including kidney stones and bone problems that may lead to fractures, will develop. Untreated metabolic acidosis may also cause slowed growth and a decrease in final height in children. Talk to your doctor about the risks of taking zonisamide.
If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [1-800-332-1088].
What should I do if I forget to take a dose?
Talk to your doctor about what to do if you miss a dose of zonisamide. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.
What should I do in case of overdose?
In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.
Symptoms of overdose may include:
slow heartbeat
slowed breathing
dizziness
fainting
coma (loss of consciousness for a period of time)
What storage conditions are needed for this medication?
Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from light, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
What other information should I know?
Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to zonisamide.
Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.

Zolpidem

Why is this medication prescribed?
Zolpidem is used to treat insomnia (difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep). Zolpidem belongs to a class of medications called sedative-hypnotics. It works by slowing activity in the brain to allow sleep.
How should this medication be used?
Zolpidem comes as a tablet and an extended-release (long-acting) tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken as needed at bedtime. Zolpidem will work faster if it is not taken with a meal or immediately after a meal. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take zolpidem exactly as directed.
You will probably become very sleepy soon after you take zolpidem and will remain sleepy for some time after you take the medication. Plan to go to bed right after you take zolpidem and to stay in bed for 7-8 hours. Do not take zolpidem if you will be unable to remain asleep for 7-8 hours after taking the medication. If you get up too soon after taking zolpidem, you may experience memory problems.
Swallow the extended release tablets whole; do not split, chew, or crush them.
Your sleep problems should improve within 7-10 days after you start taking zolpidem. Call your doctor if your sleep problems do not improve during this time or if they get worse at any time during your treatment.
Zolpidem should normally be taken for short periods of time. If you take zolpidem for 2 weeks or longer, zolpidem may not help you sleep as well as it did when you first began to take the medication. If you take zolpidem for a long time, you also may develop dependence ('addiction,' a need to continue taking the medication) on zolpidem. Talk to your doctor about the risks of taking zolpidem for 2 weeks or longer. Do not take a larger dose of zolpidem, take it more often, or take it for a longer time than prescribed by your doctor.
Do not stop taking zolpidem without talking to your doctor, especially if you have taken it for longer than 2 weeks. If you suddenly stop taking zolpidem, you may develop unpleasant feelings or you may experience more severe withdrawal symptoms such as shakiness, stomach and muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, and rarely, seizures.
You may have more difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep on the first night after you stop taking zolpidem than you did before you started taking the medication. This is normal and usually gets better without treatment after one or two nights.
Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with zolpidem and each time you refill your prescription. Read the information carefully and ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions. You can also visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm089833.pdf) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.
Are there other uses for this medicine?
This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Other names
Ambien®
Ambien CR®




What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking zolpidem,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to zolpidem or any other medications.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: antidepressants ('mood elevators') such as imipramine (Tofranil); itraconazole (Sporanox); medications for anxiety, colds or allergies, mental illness, pain, or seizures; rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane); sedatives; sertraline (Zoloft); sleeping pills; and tranquilizers. Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
tell your doctor if you drink or have ever drunk large amounts of alcohol, use or have ever used street drugs, or have overused prescription medications. Also tell your doctor if you have or have ever had depression; a problem with heavy snoring; sleep apnea (condition in which the patient briefly stops breathing many times during the night); other breathing problems such as asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema; myasthenia gravis (condition that causes weakness of certain muscles); or liver or kidney disease.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. If you become pregnant while taking zolpidem, call your doctor. Do not breast-feed while you are taking zolpidem.
if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking zolpidem.
you should know that zolpidem may make you drowsy during the day, and may increase the risk that you will fall. Take extra care not to fall and do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this medication affects you.
do not drink alcohol during your treatment with zolpidem. Alcohol can make the side effects of zolpidem worse.
you should know that some people who took zolpidem got out of bed and drove their cars, prepared and ate food, had sex, made phone calls, or were involved in other activities while partially asleep. After they woke up, these people were usually unable to remember what they had done. Call your doctor right away if you find out that you have been driving or doing anything else unusual while you were sleeping.
you should know that your mental health may change in unexpected ways while you are taking this medication. It is hard to tell if these changes are caused by zolpidem or if they are caused by physical or mental illnesses that you already have or suddenly develop. Tell your doctor right away if you experience any of the following symptoms: aggressiveness, strange or unusually outgoing behavior, hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist), feeling as if you are outside of your body, memory problems, difficulty concentrating, slowed speech or movements, new or worsening depression, thinking about killing yourself, confusion, and any other changes in your usual thoughts, mood, or behavior. Be sure that your family knows which symptoms may be serious so that they can call the doctor if you are unable to seek treatment on your own.
What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.



What side effects can this medication cause?
Zolpidem may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
drowsiness
weakness
headache
dizziness
'drugged feeling'
unsteady walking
difficulty keeping balance
constipation
diarrhea
gas
heartburn
stomach pain or tenderness
changes in appetite
uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body
burning or tingling in the hands, arms, feet, or legs
unusual dreams
dry mouth or throat
ringing, pain, or itching in the ears
eye redness
muscle aches or cramps
joint, back, or neck pain
heavy menstrual bleeding
Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately:
rash
hives
itching
swelling of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, or throat
feeling that the throat is closing
difficulty breathing or swallowing
hoarseness
shortness of breath
nausea
vomiting
pounding heartbeat
chest pain
blurred vision or other vision problems
Zolpidem may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while you are taking this medication.
If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [1-800-332-1088].
What should I do if I forget to take a dose?
Zolpidem should only be taken at bedtime. If you did not take zolpidem at bedtime and you are unable to fall asleep, you may take zolpidem if you will be able to remain in bed for 7-8 hours afterward. Do not take zolpidem if you are not ready to go to sleep right away and stay asleep for at least 7-8 hours.
What should I do in case of overdose?
In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.
Symptoms of overdose may include:
drowsiness
coma (loss of consciousness for a period of time)
slowed breathing or heartbeat
What storage conditions are needed for this medication?
Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature, away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
What other information should I know?
Keep all appointments with your doctor.
Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist if you have any questions about refilling your prescription.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.

Zolmitriptan Oral

Why is this medication prescribed?
Zolmitriptan is used to treat the symptoms of migraine headache (severe throbbing headache that sometimes is experienced with other symptoms such as upset stomach and sensitivity to sound and light). Zolmitriptan is in a class of medications called selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonists. It works by reducing swelling of blood vessels around the brain and blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause pain, upset stomach, and other symptoms of migraine. Zolmitriptan does not prevent migraine attacks.
How should this medication be used?
Zolmitriptan comes as a tablet and an orally disintegrating tablet (tablet that dissolves quickly in the mouth) to take by mouth. It is usually taken during a migraine attack. If your symptoms improve after you take zolmitriptan but return after 2 hours or longer, you may take a second dose. However, if your symptoms do not improve after you take zolmitriptan, do not take a second dose without calling your doctor. Your doctor will tell you the maximum number of tablets or orally disintegrating tablets you may take in a 24-hour period. Call your doctor if you need to take zolmitriptan to treat more than three headaches in 1 month. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take zolmitriptan exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Do not take zolmitriptan to treat a headache that feels different than your usual migraine attacks. Call your doctor to find out what you should do.
If you have certain risk factors for heart disease, your doctor may ask you to take your first dose of zolmitriptan in the doctor's office or other medical facility where you can be monitored for serious reactions.
If your doctor has prescribed a dose lower than 2.5 mg, you may use your fingers to break the 2.5-mg tablet on the line that divides it in half. However, you should not break or split the orally disintegrating tablet.
To take the orally disintegrating tablet, use dry hands to peel back the foil packaging. Immediately take out the tablet and place it on your tongue. The tablet will quickly dissolve and can be swallowed with saliva. No water is needed to swallow disintegrating tablets. Do not open the foil packaging or remove the orally disintegrating tablet until just before you are ready to take it.
Ask your pharmacist or doctor for a copy of the manufacturer's information for the patient.
Are there other uses for this medicine?
This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Other names
Zomig®
Zomig-ZMT®



What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking zolmitriptan,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to zolmitriptan or any other medications.
do not take zolmitriptan if you have taken any of the following medications in the past 24 hours: other selective serotonin receptor (5-HT) agonists such as almotriptan (Axert), eletriptan (Relpax), frovatriptan (Frova), naratriptan (Amerge), rizatriptan (Maxalt), or sumatriptan (Imitrex); or ergot-type medications such as bromocriptine (Parlodel), cabergoline (Dostinex), dihydroergotamine (D.H.E. 45, Migranal), ergoloid mesylates (Germinal, Hydergine), ergonovine (Ergotrate), ergotamine (Bellergal-S, Cafergot, Ergomar, Wigraine), methylergonovine (Methergine), methysergide (Sansert), and pergolide (Permax).
do not take zolmitriptan if you are taking a monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Parnate), or tranylcypromine (Nardil) or if you have taken one of these medications in the past 2 weeks.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, or herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: acetaminophen (Tylenol); cimetidine (Tagamet); oral contraceptives ('birth control pills'); propranolol (Inderal); selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), fluvoxamine (Luvox), paroxetine (Paxil), and sertraline (Zoloft); and selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as duloxetine (Cymbalta), sibutramine (Meridia),and venlafaxine (Effexor). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
tell your doctor if you smoke, if you or any family members have or have ever had heart disease, if you have gone through menopause (change of life), and if you have or have ever had a heart attack; angina (chest pain); pounding or irregular heartbeat; shortness of breath; a stroke or 'mini-stroke'; high blood pressure; high cholesterol; diabetes; seizures;circulation problems such as varicose veins, blood clots in the legs, Raynaud's disease (problems with blood flow to the fingers, toes, ears, and nose), or ischemic bowel disease (bloody diarrhea and stomach pain caused by decreased blood flow to the intestines);or liveror kidney disease.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you plan to be sexually active while you are taking this medication, talk to your doctor about effective methods of birth control. If you become pregnant while taking zolmitriptan, call your doctor.
you should know that this medication may cause drowsiness and dizziness. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how zolmitriptan affects you.
talk to your doctor about your headache symptoms. Zolmitriptan should not be used to treat certain types of migraine headaches (hemiplegic or basilar) or other types of headaches (such as cluster headaches).
if you have phenylketonuria (PKU, an inherited condition in which a special diet must be followed to prevent mental retardation), you should know that the orally disintegrating tablets contain aspartame that forms phenylalanine.
What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.




What side effects can this medication cause?
Zolmitriptan may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
burning or tingling feeling
feeling warm or cold
drowsiness
dry mouth
upset stomach
heartburn
sweating
weakness
Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately:
pain, tightness, pressure, or heaviness in the chest, throat, or jaw
muscle aches
slow or difficult speech
dizziness or faintness
weakness or numbness of an arm or leg
fast, pounding, or irregular heartbeat
bloody diarrhea
stomach pain
paleness or blue color of the fingers and toes
shortness of breath
swelling of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, or throat,
difficulty swallowing
hoarseness
rash or lumps on the skin
If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [1-800-332-1088].
What should I do in case of overdose?
In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.
Symptoms of overdose may include:
sleepy, quiet state
What storage conditions are needed for this medication?
Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed and any orally disintegrating tablets that you removed from the blister pack but did not use immediately. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
What other information should I know?
Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory.
Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.

Zolmitriptan Nasal

Why is this medication prescribed?
Zolmitriptan nasal spray is used to treat the symptoms of migraine headaches (severe, throbbing headaches that sometimes are accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Zolmitriptan is in a class of medications called selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonists. It works by narrowing blood vessels around the brain and stopping the release of certain natural substances that cause pain, nausea, and other symptoms of migraine. Zolmitriptan does not prevent migraine attacks.
How should this medication be used?
Zolmitriptan comes as a spray to inhale through the nose. It is usually used during a migraine attack. If your symptoms improve after you use zolmitriptan but return after 2 hours or longer, you may use a second dose of zolmitriptan. However, if your symptoms do not improve after you use zolmitriptan, do not use a second dose without talking to your doctor. Do not use more than two sprays of zolmitriptan in a 24-hour period. Call your doctor if you need to use zolmitriptan nasal spray to treat more than four headaches in 1 month. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Use zolmitriptan exactly as directed. Do not use more or less of it or use it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Do not use zolmitriptan nasal spray to treat a headache that feels different than your usual migraine attacks. Call your doctor to find out what you should do.
If you have certain risk factors for heart disease, your doctor may ask you to use your first dose of zolmitriptan nasal spray in the doctor's office or other medical facility where you can be monitored for serious reactions.
Ask your pharmacist or doctor for a copy of the manufacturer's information for the patient.
To use the nasal spray, follow these steps:
Read all of the manufacturer's instructions for using the nasal spray before you use your first dose.
Blow your nose gently.
Remove the protective cap from the sprayer.
Hold the sprayer between your fingers and thumb, but be careful not to press the plunger.
Use your other hand to block one nostril by pressing firmly on the side of your nose.
Put the tip of the sprayer into your other nostril as far as feels comfortable and tilt your head back slightly. Be careful not to press the plunger or spray the medication in your eyes.
Breathe in gently through your nose. At the same time, press the plunger firmly with your thumb. The plunger may feel stiff and you may hear a click.
Keep your head slightly tilted back and remove the tip from your nose.
Breathe gently through your mouth for 5-10 seconds. It is normal to feel liquid in your nose or the back of your throat.
The sprayer only contains one dose of medication. After you have used it, throw it away in a trash can that is out of the reach of children and pets.
Are there other uses for this medicine?
This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Other names
Zomig®



What special precautions should I follow?
Before using zolmitriptan nasal spray,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to zolmitriptan or any other medications.
do not use zolmitriptan nasal spray if you have taken any of the following medications in the past 24 hours: other selective serotonin receptor agonists such as almotriptan (Axert), eletriptan (Relpax), frovatriptan (Frova), naratriptan (Amerge), rizatriptan (Maxalt), or sumatriptan (Imitrex); or ergot-type medications such as bromocriptine (Parlodel), cabergoline (Dostinex), dihydroergotamine (D.H.E. 45, Migranal), ergoloid mesylates (Germinal, Hydergine), ergonovine (Ergotrate), ergotamine (Bellergal-S, Cafergot, Ergomar, Wigraine), methylergonovine (Methergine), methysergide (Sansert), and pergolide (Permax).
do not use zolmitriptan nasal spray if you are taking a monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Parnate), or tranylcypromine (Nardil) or if you have taken one of these medications in the past 2 weeks.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: acetaminophen (Tylenol); cimetidine (Tagamet); oral contraceptives ('birth control pills'); propranolol (Inderal); selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, in Symbyax), fluvoxamine , paroxetine (Paxil), and sertraline (Zoloft); and selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as duloxetine (Cymbalta), sibutramine (Meridia),and venlafaxine (Effexor). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
tell your doctor if you smoke, if you or any family members have or have ever had heart disease, if you have gone through menopause (change of life), and if you have or have ever had a heart attack; angina (chest pain); pounding or irregular heartbeat; shortness of breath; a stroke or 'mini-stroke'; high blood pressure; high cholesterol; diabetes; seizures; circulation problems such as varicose veins, blood clots in the legs, Raynaud's disease (problems with blood flow to the fingers, toes, ears, and nose) or ischemic bowel disease (bloody diarrhea and stomach pain caused by decreased blood flow to the intestines);or liver or kidney disease.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you plan to be sexually active while you are using this medication, talk to your doctor about effective methods of birth control. If you become pregnant while using zolmitriptan nasal spray, call your doctor.
you should know that zolmitriptan nasal spray may make you drowsy. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this medication affects you.
talk to your doctor about your headache symptoms. Zolmitriptan nasal spray should not be used to treat certain types of migraine headaches (hemiplegic or basilar) or other types of headaches (such as cluster headaches).
What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.



What side effects can this medication cause?
Zolmitriptan nasal spray may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
sore or irritated nose
sensitive skin, especially around the nose
dry mouth
unusual taste in the mouth
upset stomach
dizziness
weakness
burning or tingling feeling
Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of these symptoms, call your doctor immediately:
pain, tightness, pressure, or heaviness in the chest, throat, or jaw
slow or difficult speech
dizziness or faintness
problems with vision
weakness or numbness of an arm or leg
fast, pounding, or irregular heartbeat
bloody diarrhea
stomach pain
paleness or blue color of the fingers and toes
shortness of breath
swelling of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, or throat
difficulty swallowing
hoarseness
Zolmitriptan nasal spray may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.
If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [1-800-332-1088].
What should I do in case of overdose?
In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.
Symptoms of overdose may include:
sleepy, quiet state
What storage conditions are needed for this medication?
Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
What other information should I know?
Keep all appointments with your doctor.
Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.

Ondansetron

Why is this medication prescribed?
Ondansetron is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a class of medications called 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. It works by blocking the action of serotonin, a natural substance that may cause nausea and vomiting.
How should this medication be used?
Ondansetron comes as a tablet, a rapidly disintegrating (dissolving) tablet, and an oral solution to take by mouth. The first dose of ondansetron is usually taken 30 minutes before the start of chemotherapy, 1 to 2 hours before the start of radiation therapy, or 1 hour before surgery. Additional doses are sometimes taken one to three times a day during chemotherapy or radiation therapy and for 1 to 2 days after the end of treatment. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take ondansetron exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
If you are taking the rapidly disintegrating tablet, remove the tablet from the package just before you take your dose. To open the package, do not try to push the tablet through the foil backing of the blister Instead, use dry hands to peel back the foil backing. Gently remove the tablet and immediately place the tablet on the top of your tongue. The tablet will dissolve in a few seconds and can be swallowed with saliva.
Are there other uses for this medicine?
This medication may be prescribed for other uses. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Other names
Zofran®
ZofranODT®




What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking ondansetron,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ondansetron, alosetron (Lotronex), dolasetron (Anzemet), granisetron (Kytril), palonosetron (Aloxi), any other medications, or any of the ingredients in ondansetron tablets or liquid. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking. Be sure to mention tramadol (Ultram, in Ultracet). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you more carefully for side effects.
tell your doctor if you have or have ever had liver disease.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking ondansetron, call your doctor.
if you have phenylketonuria (PKU, an inherited condition in which a special diet must be followed to prevent mental retardation), you should know that the orally disintegrating tablets contain aspartame that forms phenylalanine.
What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your usual diet.



What side effects can this medication cause?
Ondansetron may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
diarrhea
headache
constipation
weakness
tiredness
dizziness
Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately:
rash
hives
itching
swelling of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, throat, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs
hoarseness
difficulty breathing or swallowing
shortness of breath
noisy, high pitched breathing
Ondansetron may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while you are taking this medication.
What should I do if I forget to take a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.
What should I do in case of overdose?
In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.
Symptoms of overdose may include:
sudden loss of vision for a short time
dizziness or lightheadedness
fainting
constipation
irregular heartbeat
What storage conditions are needed for this medication?
Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store the tablets and rapidly disintegrating tablets away from light, at room temperature or in the refrigerator . Store the solution at room temperature and away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
What other information should I know?
Keep all appointments with your doctor.
Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.

Ziprasidone

Why is this medication prescribed?
Ziprasidone is used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). It is also used to treat episodes of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited or irritated mood) or mixed episodes (symptoms of mania and depression that happen together) in patients with bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Ziprasidone is in a class of medications called atypical antipsychotics. It works by changing the activity of certain natural substances in the brain.
How should this medication be used?
Ziprasidone comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken twice a day with food. Take ziprasidone at around the same times every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take ziprasidone exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Your doctor may start you on a low dose of ziprasidone and gradually increase your dose.
Ziprasidone may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to take ziprasidone even if you feel well. Do not stop taking ziprasidone without talking to your doctor.
Are there other uses for this medicine?
This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Other names
Geodon®



What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking ziprasidone,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ziprasidone or any other medications.
tell your doctor if you are taking amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), chlorpromazine (Thorazine), cisapride (Propulsid) (no longer available in the U.S.), disopyramide (Norpace), dofetilide (Tikosyn), dolasetron (Anzemet), droperidol (Inapsine), erythromycin (E.E.S., E-Mycin, Erythrocin), gatifloxacin (Tequin)(no longer available in the U.S.), halofantrine (Halfan)(no longer available in the U.S.), levomethadyl (ORLAAM) (no longer available in the U.S.), mefloquine (Lariam), mesoridazine (Serentil)(no longer available in the U.S..), moxifloxacin (Avelox), pentamidine (NebuPent, Pentam 300), pimozide (Orap), procainamide (Procanbid, Promine, Pronestyl), quinidine (Quinidex), sotalol (Betapace), sparfloxacin (Zagam), tacrolimus (Prograf), or thioridazine (Mellaril). Your doctor may tell you not to take ziprasidone if you are taking one or more of these medications.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: antidepressants; certain antifungals such as fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), and voriconazole (Vfend); aprepitant (Emend); carbamazepine (Tegretol); clarithromycin (Biaxin, in Prevpac); cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune); delavirdine (Rescriptor); diltiazem (Cardizem, Dilacor, Tiazac, others); diuretics ('water pills');dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine (Parlodel), cabergoline (Dostinex), levodopa (Dopar, Larodopa), pergolide (Permax), and ropinirole (Requip); efavirenz (Sustiva); fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem); fluvoxamine (Luvox); HIV protease inhibitors including atazanavir (Reyataz), indinavir (Crixivan), lopinavir (in Kaletra), nelfinavir (Viracept), ritonavir (Norvir, in Kaletra), and saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase); hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, rings, patches, implants, and injections); lovastatin (Mevacor, in Advicor); medications for anxiety, high blood pressure or seizures; nefazodone; sertraline (Zoloft); sleeping pills; tranquilizers; troleandomycin (TAO)(no longer available in the U.S..); verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan); and zafirlukast (Accolate). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
tell your doctor if you use or have ever used street drugs or have overused prescription medications or if you have recently had a heart attack or have trouble swallowing. Also tell your doctor if you have or have ever had heart or liver disease, breast cancer, heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, a stroke or mini-stroke, or seizures, or if you or anyone in your family has or has ever had diabetes. Also tell your doctor if you have ever had to stop taking a medication for mental illness because of severe side effects.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, especially if you are in the last few months of your pregnancy, or if you plan to become pregnant or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking ziprasidone, call your doctor. Ziprasidone may cause problems in newborns following delivery if it is taken during the last months of pregnancy.
you should know that ziprasidone may make you drowsy. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this medication affects you.
you should know that alcohol can add to the drowsiness caused by this medication. Do not drink alcohol while taking ziprasidone.
you should know that you may experience hyperglycemia (increases in your blood sugar) while you are taking this medication, even if you do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia , you are more likely to develop diabetes than people who do not have schizophrenia, and taking ziprasidone or similar medications may increase this risk. Tell your doctor immediately if you have any of the following symptoms while you are taking ziprasidone: extreme thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, blurred vision, or weakness. It is very important to call your doctor as soon as you have any of these symptoms, because high blood sugar that is not treated can cause a serious condition called ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis may become life-threatening if it is not treated at an early stage. Symptoms of ketoacidosis include: dry mouth,nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath, breath that smells fruity, and decreased consciousness.
you should know that ziprasidone may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting when you get up too quickly from a lying position. This is more common when you first start taking ziprasidone. To avoid this problem, get out of bed slowly, resting your feet on the floor for a few minutes before standing up.
you should know that ziprasidone may make it harder for your body to cool down when it gets very hot. Tell your doctor if you plan to do vigorous exercise or be exposed to extreme heat.
What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Talk to your doctor about eating grapefruit and drinking grapefruit juice while taking this medicine.
Be sure to drink plenty of water every day while you are taking this medication.



What side effects can this medication cause?
Ziprasidone may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
drowsiness
headache
restlessness
anxiety
constipation
diarrhea
loss of appetite
muscle pain
runny nose, sneezing
cough
weight gain
Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of the following symptoms or those listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section or the SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS section, call your doctor immediately:
unusual movements of your face or body that you cannot control
fast, irregular, or pounding heartbeat
rash or hives
fever
muscle stiffness
confusion
sweating
painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours
Ziprasidone may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.
If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [1-800-332-1088].
What should I do if I forget to take a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.
What should I do in case of overdose?
In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.
Symptoms of overdose may include:
drowsiness
slurred speech
sudden movements that you cannot control
uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body
anxiety
What storage conditions are needed for this medication?
Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
What other information should I know?
Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to ziprasidone.
Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.



Important warning
Studies have shown that older adults with dementia (a brain disorder that affects the ability to remember, think clearly, communicate, and perform daily activities and that may cause changes in mood and personality) who take antipsychotics (medications for mental illness) such as ziprasidone have an increased risk of death during treatment. Older adults with dementia may also have a greater chance of having a stroke or mini-stroke during treatment.
Ziprasidone is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of behavior problems in older adults with dementia. Talk to the doctor who prescribed this medication if you, a family member, or someone you care for has dementia and is taking ziprasidone. For more information visit the FDA website: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs

Zileuton

Why is this medication prescribed?
Zileuton is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing due to asthma. Zileuton is not used to treat an asthma attack (sudden episode of shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing) that has already started. Zileuton belongs to a class of medications called leukotriene synthesis inhibitors. It works by stopping the formation of certain natural substances that cause swelling, tightening, and mucus production in the airways.
How should this medication be used?
Zileuton comes as a tablet and an extended-release (long-acting) tablet to take by mouth. The tablet is usually taken four times a day with or without food. The extended-release tablet is usually taken twice a day, within one hour after the morning and evening meals. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take zileuton exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Swallow the extended-release tablets whole. Do not split, chew, or crush them.
Do not use zileuton to treat a sudden asthma attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting inhaler to use during attacks. Talk to your doctor about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack.
Continue to take all other medications that your doctor has prescribed to treat your asthma. Do not stop taking any of your medications or change the doses of any of your medications unless your doctor tells you that you should.
Tell your doctor if your asthma worsens during your treatment. Call your doctor if you need to use more of your fast-acting medication than usual or if you need to use the maximum number of doses of your fast-acting medication.
Zileuton helps control asthma symptoms but does not cure asthma. It may take several days or longer before you feel the full benefit of zileuton. Continue to take zileuton even if you feel well. Do not stop taking zileuton without talking to your doctor.
Ask your pharmacist or doctor for a copy of the manufacturer's information for the patient.
Are there other uses for this medicine?
This medication may be prescribed for other uses. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Other names
Zyflo®
Zyflo CR®



What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking zileuton,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to zileuton or any other medications.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin); antifungals such as itraconazole (Sporanox) and ketoconazole (Nizoral); beta blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), labetalol (Trandate), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), nadolol (Corgard), and propranolol (Inderal); calcium channel blockers such as amlodipine (Norvasc), felodipine, isradipine (DynaCirc), nicardipine (Cardene), nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia), nimodipine, and nisoldipine (Sular); cisapride (Propulsid); clarithromycin (Biaxin); cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune); HIV protease inhibitors such as atazanavir (Reyataz), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), ritonavir (Norvir, in Kaletra), and saquinavir (Invirase); nefazodone; telithromycin (Ketek); and theophylline (Theo-24, Uniphyl). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
tell your doctor if you have liver disease. Your doctor will probably tell you not to take zileuton.
tell your doctor if you have difficulty swallowing pills, if you drink or have ever drunk large amounts of alcohol, and if you had liver disease in the past but recovered.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking zileuton, call your doctor.
ask your doctor about the safe use of alcohol while you are taking zileuton.
you should know that your mental health may change in unexpected ways while you are taking zileuton. You should call your doctor right away if you experience any of the following symptoms: agitation, aggressive behavior, anxiety, irritability, unusual dreams, hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist), depression, difficulty falling asleep or staying sleep, restlessness, suicidal behavior (thinking about harming or killing yourself or planning or trying to do so), or tremor (uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body). Your doctor will decide if you should continue taking zileuton.
What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your regular diet.



What side effects can this medication cause?
Zileuton may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away.
headache
heartburn
diarrhea
muscle pain
nose and throat irritation
pain or fullness in the face
Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of the following symptoms or those listed in the SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS section, call your doctor immediately.
rash
hives
pain in the upper right part of the stomach
nausea
vomiting
excessive tiredness
itching
yellowing of the skin or eyes
dark urine
flu-like symptoms
If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [1-800-332-1088].
Zileuton may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you experience any unusual problems while you are taking this medication.
What should I do if I forget to take a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.
What should I do in case of overdose?
In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.
What storage conditions are needed for this medication?
Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
What other information should I know?
Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor will order certain lab tests before and during your treatment.
Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.

Zidovudine Oral

Why is this medication prescribed?
Zidovudine is used alone or with other medications to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in patients with or without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It will slow the spread of HIV infection in the body. Zidovudine is not a cure and may not decrease the number of HIV-related illnesses. Zidovudine does not prevent the spread of HIV to other people except when given to HIV-positive pregnant women. Zidovudine is given to HIV-positive pregnant women to prevent the infection from going to the baby. However, HIV infection may still occur in the infant despite this treatment.
This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
How should this medication be used?
Zidovudine comes as a capsule, tablet, and syrup to take by mouth. It is usually taken three to four times a day. In some cases it may be taken five times a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take zidovudine exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Continue to take zidovudine even if you feel well. Do not stop taking zidovudine without talking to your doctor.
Are there other uses for this medicine?
Zidovudine is also used sometimes to treat health care workers and other individuals exposed to HIV infection after accidental contact with HIV-contaminated blood, tissues, or other body fluids. Talk to your doctor about the possible risks of using this drug for your condition.
Other names
Retrovir®
Trizivir® (as a combination product containing Abacavir, Lamivudine, Zidovudine)



What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking zidovudine,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to zidovudine or any other drugs.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications you are taking, especially acetaminophen, acyclovir (Zovirax), aspirin, cimetidine (Tagamet), fluconazole (Diflucan), foscarnet (Foscavir), ganciclovir (Cytovene), indomethacin (Indocin), interferon, lorazepam (Ativan), oxazepam (Serax), probenecid (Benemid), valproic acid (Depakene, Depakote), and vitamins.
tell your doctor if you have or have ever had liver or kidney disease, any disease or swelling of the muscle, anemia, a history of alcohol abuse, or bleeding or other blood problems.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking zidovudine, call your doctor.
tell your doctor if you drink alcohol.
What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Zidovudine should be taken at least 30 minutes before or 1 hour after a meal. You should take it sitting up with plenty of water.



What side effects can this medication cause?
Zidovudine may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
stomach pain
diarrhea or loose stools
constipation
headache
dizziness
difficulty sleeping
If you experience the following symptom, or any of those listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, call your doctor immediately:
rash
If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [1-800-332-1088].
What should I do if I forget to take a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.
What should I do in case of overdose?
In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.
What storage conditions are needed for this medication?
Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
What other information should I know?
Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.



Important warning
Zidovudine may decrease the number of a certain type of white blood cell in the blood and cause anemia and muscle disorders. When used alone or in combination with other antiviral medications, zidovudine can also cause serious damage to the liver and a blood condition called lactic acidosis.
Call your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following symptoms: upset stomach, loss of appetite, dark yellow or brown urine, unusual bleeding or bruising, flu-like symptoms, yellowing of the skin or eyes, and pain in the upper right part of your stomach, muscle weakness, lack of strength, muscle pain, shortness of breath, unusual tiredness or weakness, and pale skin.
It is extremely important to keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor will order certain lab tests to check your response to zidovudine.
Notification
[Posted 03/01/2011] ISSUE: FDA updated the public about an ongoing safety review of abacavir and a possible increased risk of heart attack. There has been conflicting information on the potential increased risk of heart attack with abacavir (Ziagen) treatment. An increased risk of heart attack (myocardial infarction or MI) has been seen in several observational studies and one randomized controlled trial (RCT) with abacavir. However, an increased risk of heart attack has not been seen in other RCTs and the safety database maintained by the drug manufacturer.
FDA conducted a meta-analysis of 26 randomized clinical trials that evaluated abacavir. This meta-analysis did not show an increased risk of MI associated with the use of abacavir. FDA will continue to communicate any new safety information to the public as it becomes available.
BACKGROUND: Abacavir is an antiviral medication used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs [abacavir and lamivudine (Epzicom); abacavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine (Trizivir)] for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.
RECOMMENDATION: Healthcare professionals should continue to prescribe abacavir according to the professional label. Patients should not stop taking their abacavir without first talking to their healthcare professional. For more information visit the FDA website at: http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation and http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety.

Zidovudine Injection

About your treatment
Your doctor has ordered zidovudine, an antiviral agent, to help treat your infection. The drug will be added to an intravenous fluid that will drip through a needle or catheter placed in your vein for at least 60 minutes every 4 hours.
Zidovudine is used alone or with other medications to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in patients with or without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It will slow the spread of HIV infection in the body. Zidovudine is not a cure and may not decrease the number of HIV-related illnesses. Zidovudine does not prevent the spread of HIV to other people. This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Your health care provider (doctor, nurse, or pharmacist) may measure the effectiveness and side effects of your treatment using laboratory tests and physical examinations. It is important to keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. The length of treatment depends on how your infection and symptoms respond to the medication.
Other names
Retrovir®
Retrovir® I.V. Infusion




What special precautions should I follow?
Before administering zidovudine,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to zidovudine or any other drugs.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications you are taking, especially acetaminophen, acyclovir (Zovirax), aspirin, cancer chemotherapy, cimetidine (Tagamet), fluconazole (Diflucan), foscarnet (Foscavir), ganciclovir (Cytovene), indomethacin (Indocin), interferon, lorazepam (Ativan), oxazepam (Serax), probenecid (Benemid), valproic acid (Depakene, Depakote), and vitamins.
tell your doctor if you have or have ever had liver or kidney disease, any disease or swelling of the muscles, anemia, a history of alcohol abuse, or bleeding or other blood problems.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking zidovudine, call your doctor.
tell your doctor if you drink alcohol.



What side effects can this medication cause?
Zidovudine may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
stomach pain
diarrhea or loose stools
constipation
headache
dizziness
sleepiness or difficulty sleeping
If you experience the following symptom, or any of those listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, call your doctor immediately:
rash
If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [1-800-332-1088].
What should I do in case of overdose?
In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.
What storage conditions are needed for this medication?
Your health care provider may give you a 2-day supply of zidovudine at a time. You will be told to store it in the refrigerator.
Take your next dose from the refrigerator 1 hour before using it; place it in a clean, dry area to allow it to warm to room temperature.
Store your medication only as directed. Make sure you understand what you need to store your medication properly.
Keep your supplies in a clean, dry place when you are not using them, and keep all medications and supplies out of reach of children. Your health care provider will tell you how to throw away used needles, syringes, tubing, and containers to avoid accidental injury.



Important warning
Zidovudine can cause severe side effects, such as liver damage, blood toxicities, and muscle disorders. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: unusual breathing, shortness of breath, unusual bleeding or bruising, unusual tiredness or weakness, pale skin, fever, chills, sore throat, fatigue, loss of appetite, upset stomach, vomiting, dark urine, yellowing of the skin, pale stools, muscle weakness, lack of strength, or muscle pain. Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor will order certain lab tests to check your response to zidovudine.

Ranitidine

Why is this medication prescribed?
Ranitidine is used to treat ulcers; gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which backward flow of acid from the stomach causes heartburn and injury of the food pipe (esophagus); and conditions where the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Over-the-counter ranitidine is used to prevent and treat symptoms of heartburn associated with acid indigestion and sour stomach. Ranitidine is in a class of medications called H2 blockers. It decreases the amount of acid made in the stomach.
How should this medication be used?
Ranitidine comes as a tablet, an effervescent tablet, effervescent granules, and a syrup to take by mouth. It is usually taken once a day at bedtime or two to four times a day. Over-the-counter ranitidine comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day. To prevent symptoms, it is taken 30 to 60 minutes before eating or drinking foods that cause heartburn. Follow the directions on your prescription or the package label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take ranitidine exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Dissolve ranitidine effervescent tablets and granules in a full glass (6 to 8 ounces [180 to 240 milliliters]) of water before drinking.
Do not take over-the-counter ranitidine for longer than 2 weeks unless your doctor tells you to. If symptoms of heartburn, acid indigestion, or sour stomach last longer than 2 weeks, stop taking ranitidine and call your doctor.
Are there other uses for this medicine?
Ranitidine is also used sometimes to treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to prevent stress ulcers, stomach damage from use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and aspiration of stomach acid during anesthesia. Talk to your doctor about the risks of using this medication for your condition.
This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Other names
Tritec®
Zantac®
Zantac® 75
Zantac® EFFERdose®
Zantac® Premixed
Zantac® Syrup



What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking ranitidine,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ranitidine or any other medications.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking. Be sure to mention either of the following: anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin); and triazolam (Halcion). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
tell your doctor if you have or have ever had porphyria, phenylketonuria, or kidney or liver disease.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking ranitidine, call your doctor.
What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.



What side effects can this medication cause?
Ranitidine may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
headache
constipation
diarrhea
nausea
vomiting
stomach pain
Ranitidine may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.
What should I do if I forget to take a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.
What should I do in case of overdose?
In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.
What storage conditions are needed for this medication?
Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
What other information should I know?
Keep all appointments with your doctor.
Before having any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are taking ranitidine.
Do not let anyone else take your medicine. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.

Ranitidine

Why is this medication prescribed?
Ranitidine is used to treat ulcers; gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which backward flow of acid from the stomach causes heartburn and injury of the food pipe (esophagus); and conditions where the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Over-the-counter ranitidine is used to prevent and treat symptoms of heartburn associated with acid indigestion and sour stomach. Ranitidine is in a class of medications called H2 blockers. It decreases the amount of acid made in the stomach.
How should this medication be used?
Ranitidine comes as a tablet, an effervescent tablet, effervescent granules, and a syrup to take by mouth. It is usually taken once a day at bedtime or two to four times a day. Over-the-counter ranitidine comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day. To prevent symptoms, it is taken 30 to 60 minutes before eating or drinking foods that cause heartburn. Follow the directions on your prescription or the package label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take ranitidine exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Dissolve ranitidine effervescent tablets and granules in a full glass (6 to 8 ounces [180 to 240 milliliters]) of water before drinking.
Do not take over-the-counter ranitidine for longer than 2 weeks unless your doctor tells you to. If symptoms of heartburn, acid indigestion, or sour stomach last longer than 2 weeks, stop taking ranitidine and call your doctor.
Are there other uses for this medicine?
Ranitidine is also used sometimes to treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to prevent stress ulcers, stomach damage from use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and aspiration of stomach acid during anesthesia. Talk to your doctor about the risks of using this medication for your condition.
This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Other names
Tritec®
Zantac®
Zantac® 75
Zantac® EFFERdose®
Zantac® Premixed
Zantac® Syrup



What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking ranitidine,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ranitidine or any other medications.
tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking. Be sure to mention either of the following: anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin); and triazolam (Halcion). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
tell your doctor if you have or have ever had porphyria, phenylketonuria, or kidney or liver disease.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking ranitidine, call your doctor.
What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.



What side effects can this medication cause?
Ranitidine may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
headache
constipation
diarrhea
nausea
vomiting
stomach pain
Ranitidine may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.
What should I do if I forget to take a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.
What should I do in case of overdose?
In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.
What storage conditions are needed for this medication?
Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
What other information should I know?
Keep all appointments with your doctor.
Before having any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are taking ranitidine.
Do not let anyone else take your medicine. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.

Zanamivir Inhalation

Why is this medication prescribed?
Zanamivir is used in adults and children at least 7 years of age to treat some types of influenza ('flu') in people who have had symptoms of the flu for less than 2 days. This medication is also used to prevent some types of flu in adults and children at least 5 years of age when they have spent time with someone who has the flu or when there is a flu outbreak. Zanamivir is in a class of medications called neuraminidase inhibitors. It works by stopping the growth and spread of the flu virus in your body. Zanamivir helps shorten the time you have flu symptoms such as nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, muscle aches, tiredness, weakness, headache, fever, and chills.
How should this medication be used?
Zanamivir comes as a powder to inhale (breathe in) by mouth. To treat influenza, it is usually inhaled twice daily for 5 days. You should inhale the doses about 12 hours apart and at the same times each day. However, on the first day of treatment, your doctor may tell you to inhale the doses closer together. To help prevent the spread of influenza in people living in the same household, zanamivir is usually inhaled once a day for 10 days. To help prevent the spread of influenza in a community, zanamivir is usually inhaled once a day for 28 days. When using zanamivir to prevent influenza, it should be inhaled at around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Use zanamivir exactly as directed. Do not use more or less of it or use it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Zanamivir comes with a plastic inhaler called a Diskhaler (device for inhaling powder) and five Rotadisks (circular foil blister packs each containing four blisters of medication). Zanamivir powder can only be inhaled using the Diskhaler provided. Do not remove the powder from the packaging, mix it with any liquid, or inhale it with any other inhalation device. Do not put a hole in or open any medication blister pack until inhaling a dose with the Diskhaler.
Carefully read the manufacturer's instructions that describe how to prepare and inhale a dose of zanamivir using the Diskhaler. Be sure to ask your pharmacist or doctor if you have any questions about how to prepare or inhale this medication.
If you use an inhaled medication to treat asthma, emphysema, or other breathing problems and you are scheduled to use that medication at the same time as zanamivir, you should use your regular inhaled medication before using zanamivir.
The use of the inhaler by a child should be supervised by an adult who understands how to use zanamivir and has been instructed in its use by a healthcare provider.
Continue to take zanamivir even if you start to feel better. Do not stop taking zanamivir without talking to your doctor.
If you feel worse or develop new symptoms during or after treatment, or if your flu symptoms do not start to get better, call your doctor.
Ask your pharmacist or doctor for a copy of the manufacturer's information for the patient.
Are there other uses for this medicine?
Zanamivir may be used to treat and prevent infections from influenza A (H1N1).
This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Other names
Relenza®



What special precautions should I follow?
Before using zanamivir,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to zanamivir, any other medications, any food products, or lactose (milk proteins).
tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
tell your doctor if you have or have ever had asthma or other breathing problems; bronchitis (swelling of the air passages that lead to the lungs); emphysema (damage to air sacs in the lungs); or heart, kidney, liver, or other lung disease.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking zanamivir, call your doctor.
you should know that zanamivir may cause serious or life-threatening breathing problems, more commonly in patients with an airways disease such as asthma or emphysema. If you have trouble breathing or have wheezing or shortness of breath after your dose of zanamivir, stop using zanamivir and get medical attention immediately. If you have difficulty breathing, and have been prescribed a rescue medication, use your rescue medication immediately and then call for medical attention. Do not inhale any more zanamivir without first talking to your doctor.
you should know that people, especially children and teenagers, who have the flu may become confused, agitated, or anxious, and may behave strangely, have seizures or hallucinate (see things or hear voices that do not exist), or harm or kill themselves. You or your child may develop these symptoms whether or not you or your child uses zanamivir, and the symptoms may begin shortly after starting treatment if you do use the medication. If your child has the flu, you should watch his or her behavior very carefully and call the doctor right away if he or she becomes confused or behaves abnormally. If you have the flu, you, your family, or your caregiver should call the doctor right away if you become confused, behave abnormally, or think about harming yourself. Be sure that your family or caregiver knows which symptoms may be serious so they can call the doctor if you are unable to seek treatment on your own.
ask your doctor if you should receive a flu vaccination each year. Zanamivir does not take the place of a yearly flu vaccine. If you received or plan to receive the intranasal flu vaccine (FluMist; flu vaccine that is sprayed into the nose), you should tell your doctor before taking zanamivir. Zanamivir may interfere with the activity of the intranasal flu vaccine if it is taken up to 2 weeks after or up to 48 hours before the vaccine is administered.
What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.



What side effects can this medication cause?
Zanamivir may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
dizziness
irritation of the nose
joint pain
If you experience any of the following symptoms, or those mentioned in the SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS section, call your doctor immediately:
difficulty breathing
wheezing
shortness of breath
hives
rash
itching
difficulty swallowing
swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs
hoarseness
If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [1-800-332-1088].
What should I do if I forget to take a dose?
If you forget to inhale a dose, inhale it as soon as you remember it. If it is 2 hours or less until the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not inhale a double dose to make up for a missed one. If you miss several doses, call your doctor to find out what to do.
What should I do in case of overdose?
In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.
What storage conditions are needed for this medication?
Keep this medication in the container it came in and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
What other information should I know?
You should maintain proper hygiene, wash your hands frequently, and avoid situations such as sharing cups and utensils that can spread the influenza virus to others.
The Diskhaler should only be used for zanamivir. Do not use the Diskhaler to take other medications that you inhale.
Do not let anyone else use your medication. Your prescription is probably not refillable.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.

Zaleplon

Why is this medication prescribed?
Zaleplon is used to treat insomnia (difficulty falling asleep). Zaleplon does not help you to stay asleep longer or decrease the number of times that you awaken during the night. Zaleplon is in a class of medications called hypnotics. It works by slowing activity in the brain to allow sleep.
How should this medication be used?
Zaleplon comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken as needed at bedtime or after trying unsuccessfully to fall asleep. Do not take zaleplon with or shortly after a heavy, high-fat meal. Zaleplon may not work well if it is taken with high fat foods. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take zaleplon exactly as directed.
You will probably become very sleepy soon after you take zaleplon and will remain sleepy for some time after you take the medication. Plan to go to bed right after you take zaleplon and to stay in bed for 7 to 8 hours. Do not take zaleplon if you will be unable to go to bed right away and remain asleep for 7 to 8 hours after taking the medication. If you continue to walk around after taking zaleplon, you may experience dizziness, lightheadedness, problems with memory and coordination, or hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist). If you get up too soon after taking zaleplon, you may experience memory problems.
You should be sleeping well within 7 to 10 days after you start taking zaleplon. Call you doctor if your sleep problems do not improve during this time, if they get worse at any time during your treatment, or if you notice any changes in your thoughts or behavior.
Zaleplon can be habit-forming. Do not take a larger dose, take it more often, or take it for a longer time than prescribed by your doctor.
Do not stop taking zaleplon without talking to your doctor. If you suddenly stop taking zaleplon, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as unpleasant feelings, stomach and muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, shakiness, and rarely, seizures. Your doctor will probably decrease your dose gradually.
You may have more difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep on the first few nights after you stop taking zaleplon than you did before you started taking the medication. This is normal and usually gets better without treatment after one or two nights.
Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with zaleplon and each time you refill your prescription. Read the information carefully and ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions. You can also visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.
Are there other uses for this medicine?
This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Other names
Sonata®



What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking zaleplon,
tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to zaleplon, aspirin, any other medications, or tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and drugs).
tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: antihistamines such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) or promethazine; barbiturates; cimetidine (Tagamet); cough and cold medicines; erythromycin; imipramine (Tofranil); ketoconazole (Nizoral); medications for allergies, depression, or mental illness; certain medications for seizures such as phenytoin (Dilantin), carbamazepine (Epitol, Tegretol, others), and phenobarbital; pain relievers; rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane); sedatives,other sleeping pills, thioridazine ; and tranquilizers. Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
tell your doctor if you drink or have ever drunk large amounts of alcohol and if you use or have ever used street drugs or have overused prescription medications. Also tell your doctor if you have ever thought about killing yourself or tried to do so and if you have or have ever had depression, mental illness, seizures, lung disease or breathing problems, or kidney or liver disease.
tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking zaleplon, call your doctor.
if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking zaleplon.
you should know that this medication may make you drowsy during the daytime. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how zaleplon affects you.
do not drink alcohol while you are taking zaleplon. Alcohol can make the side effects of zaleplon worse.
you should know that some people who took medications for sleep got out of bed and drove their cars, prepared and ate food, had sex, made phone calls, or were involved in other activities while partially asleep. After they woke up, these people were usually unable to remember what they had done. Call your doctor right away if you find out that you have been driving or doing anything else unusual while you were sleeping.
you should know that your mental health may change in unexpected ways while you are taking this medication. These changes may be caused by zaleplon or they may be caused by physical or mental illnesses that you already have or that you develop during your treatment. Tell your doctor right away if you experience any of the following symptoms: aggressiveness, strange or unusually outgoing behavior, hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist), feeling as if you are outside of your body, memory problems, new or worsening depression, thinking about killing yourself, confusion, and any other changes in your usual thoughts or behavior. Be sure that your family knows which symptoms may be serious so that they can call the doctor if you are unable to seek treatment on your own.
What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.



What side effects can this medication cause?
Zaleplon may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
drowsiness
dizziness
lightheadedness
lack of coordination
numbness, burning, or tingling in the hands or feet
headache
loss of appetite
vision problems
eye pain
sensitivity to noise
distorted sense of smell
painful menstrual periods
Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately:
rash
itching
hives
swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, or eyes
hoarseness
difficulty breathing or swallowing
Zaleplon may cause other side effects. Tell your doctor if you experience any unusual problems while you are taking this medication.
If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [1-800-332-1088].
What should I do if I forget to take a dose?
Zaleplon should only be taken at bedtime. If you did not take zaleplon before you went to bed and you are unable to fall asleep, you may take zaleplon if you will be able to stay in bed for at least 8 hours afterward. Do not take a double dose of zaleplon to make up for a missed dose.
What should I do in case of overdose?
In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.
Symptoms of overdose may include:
drowsiness
confusion
problems with coordination
floppy muscles
slow or difficult breathing
coma (loss of consciousness for a period of time)
What storage conditions are needed for this medication?
Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
Keep zaleplon in a safe place so no one else can take it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how many capsules are left so you will know if any are missing.
What other information should I know?
Keep all appointments with your doctor.
Do not let anyone else take your medication. Zaleplon is a controlled substance. Prescriptions may be refilled only a limited number of times; ask your pharmacist if you have any questions.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.